This program is made according to the requirements and oriented aims of education plan of GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE and the practical conditions of the students and the teaching of Track and Field. The program regulates the textbook, teaching tasks, teaching contents, teaching hours of the events, the forms of teaching, evaluation of examination and teaching measurements, which is the main foundation of the teaching work. Track and Field Teachers must strictly follow the basic requirements of the program during their teaching work.
According to the teaching aims and requirements regulated by the education plan of GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE, the main objective and task of the track and field compulsory course are to make all students of this course be able to study and master systematically the basic theories, basic techniques and basic practical skills of track and field, and to train and cultivate their practical abilities of conducting the teaching, training, judging and organizing of the athletics competition and the management of the facilities of the track and field.
There are 68 teaching class hours for the track and field course each term on the basis of four-year education plan of the institute. The reference textbook will mainly be <<English for Coach>> edited by Yi hou-gao, etc. Published by People Sport Press. and <<The Techniques of Athletics English-Chinese Bilingual Textbook>>, edited by Shen Nan and Ma ying-kang, Published by Beijing Sport University Press. The teaching material will be edited by the professional vice-professors of Track and Field who are responsible for the teaching, it must be the combination of systematic knowledge and modern developing trend of Track and Field. The classes of the course will be executed in the forms of theoretical lecturing, technical teaching, independent assignment and evaluation of the examination.
Theoretical classes include the following basis contents: Introduction and development of track and field, Technical principles, Organization of track and field competition, Judging methods of the competition, The grounds for track and field, Sprint, Hurdle, High jump, Long jump, Shot put and Javelin Throw. Teachers must make the above topics well understood and use the theories of track and field directing the practice of the course by taking consideration of the students’ practical situation in the teaching.
Technical classes including key events (Sprint, Hurdle, High Jump, Long jump, Shot put and Javelin throw) and introductory events (Race walk, Middle and long distance run, Relay, Triple jump, Pole vault, Discus throw and Hammer throw ). The teaching of the key events usually includes the objective and significance of the event, introduction and development, ground and equipment, rules of competition, technique and action, teaching methods (lecturing, demonstration of the action, teaching procedure, application of teaching means, methods of observing, analyzing and correcting the technical mistakes, training methods and safe measurements). The aim of technical classes is to make sure that the students could systematically master the basic theories, basic techniques and basic skills of the events by means of teaching, assignment, technical evaluation and test of performance after the practical learning of the above events.
1. Introduction and Development of Track and Field
History of Athletics
Classification of Athletics Events
The Developing Trend of Track and Field
2. Technical Principles of Walk and Run
Period for Walk and Run Action
Forces Influencing the Speed of Run
Factors Determining the Speed of Run
Constitute of Run Technique
3. Technical Principles of Jumping
Mechanical Principles of Jumping
Factors Determining the Jump Distance and Height
Constitute of Jumping Technique
4. Technical Principles of Throwing
Mechanical Principles of Throwing
Factors Determining the Throwing Distance
Constitute of Throwing Technique
5. Organization of Track and Field Competition
Preparing Organizing Work for Athletics Meet
Numbering and Recording Work for Athletics Meet
Preparing Work of Competition Grounds and Facilities
6. Judging Methods for Track and Field Competition
Per-competition Preparation Work
Judging Methods for Track Events
Judging Methods for Field Events
Judging Methods for Decathlon and Heptathlon
Judging Methods for Race Walk and Marathon
Wind Speed Recording and Announcement
7. Grounds for Track and Field
Basic Requirements of Track and Field Ground
Track Events Grounds
Field Events Grounds
Building of Track and Field Grounds
1. Race Walking
Introduction and Development of Race Walk
Technique of Race Walk
Teaching Methods for Race Walk
Introduction and Development of Sprint
Specific Exercises of Running Learning
Technique of Sprint
Teaching and Training of Sprint
Rules for Sprint Competition
3. Middle and Long Distance Running
Introduction and Development of the Event
Technique of Middle and Long Distance Running
Tactics of Middle and Long Distance Running
Teaching and Training of the Event
Technique of Cross-country Running
Rules for Long Distance Run Competition
4x100 Meter Relay Technique
4x400 Meter Relay Technique
Teaching and Training of Relay
Introduction and Development of Hurdles
Technique of Hurdling
Teaching for the Curved Track Hurdling
Teaching and Training of Hurdling
Rules for Hurdling Competition
6. High Jump
Introduction and Development of High Jump
Technique of Fosbury Style High Jump
Technique of Straddle Style High Jump
Rules for High Jump Competition
7. Long Jump
Introduction and Development of Long Jump
Technique of Long Jump
Teaching and Training of Long Jump
Rules for Long Jump Competition
8. Shot Put
Introduction and Development of shot Put
O’Brien Style Shot Put Technique
Teaching and Training of Shot Put
Introduction of Rotating Style Shot Put
Rules for Shot Put Competition
9. Javelin Throw
Introduction and Development of Javelin Throw
Technique of Javelin Throw
Teaching and Training of Javelin Throw
Rules for Javelin Throw Competition
10. Triple Jump, Pole Vault and Discus Throw
Introduction and Development of the Events
Teaching and Training of the Events
Rules for the Above Events Competition
EXAMINATION OF THE COURSE
Examination of the course is an important part in the teaching, and also an effective method to evaluate the teaching. In order to make students review and consolidate athletics basic theories, basic techniques and basic skills, and to improve their abilities of analyzing or solving problems and the teaching quality of the course, the examination of the athletics will include the following three parts: Theories, Evaluation of Technique and Test of performance with the details of contents and basic requirements.
Theoretical Exams: The examinations will be conducted by the end of last term. The contents of the examination will include the theories, techniques of the teaching course and teaching and training methods of the events.
Evaluation of practical techniques includes Sprint, Hurdle,
Fosbury High Jump, Long Jump, Shot Put and Javelin Throw.
1. Sprint: Technique of 60 meter dash with the staggered start
2. Hurdle: Three hurdle clearance after start (hurdle height 91.4 cm for men, 76.2 cm for women, distances between hurdles 8.9 meters for men, 7.5meters for women)
3. Fosbury Style High Jump: Evaluation Height 1.35 meters for men and 1.2 meters for women
4. Long Jump: Above 8 steps whole approach long jump
5. Shot Put: backward shift style shot put, shot weight 5 kg for men and 4 kg for women
6. Javelin Throw: Whole approach javelin throwing, javelin weight 600g for men and women
DISTRLBUTION OF TEACHING CLASS HOURS
EVENTS CLASS HOURS
INTRODUCTION OF ATHLETICS 2
RUNNING PRINCIPLES 2
JUMPING PRINCIPLES 2
THROWING PRINCIPLE 2
JUDGING METHOD 2
GROUNDS OF ATHLETICS 2
ATHLETICS TEACHING 2
ATHLETICS TRAINING 2
WALK, LONG D RUNNING 8
SPRINT, RELAY 16
HIGH JUMP 16
LONG JUMP 16
SHOT PU 16
JAVELIN THROW 16
TRIPLE JUMP 4
POLE VAULT 4
DISCUS THROW 4
1. Yi hou-gao, etc. <<English for Coach>>, People
2.Shen Nan and Ma ying-kang <<The Techniques of Athletics English-Chinese Bilingual Textbook>>, Beijing Sport University Press. 2003
3. Gerry A, Carr Fundamentals of Track and Field, Gerry A, Carr---Leisure Press. Champaign, Illinois
4. William J. Bowerman High-performance Training for Track and Field, William J. Bowerman---Leisure Press, Champaign, Illinois
5..The Athletics Congress’s TRACK AND FIELD COACHING MANUAL 1989.
6.Wkllirm J Bowerman & Willirm H. Freeman High-Performance Training For Track and Field.
7.Gerry A. Carr Fundamentals Of Track and Field.1990.
8. 张贵敏等 全国体育学院通用教材 田径运动中级教程 人民体育出版社 1999
Track and Field 田径运动 （Athletics;英）
Track and Field Events 田径项目
Track events 径赛项目
One hundred metres 100米
Two hundred metres 200米
Four hundred metres 400米
Eight hundred metres 800米
Fifteen hundred metres 1500米
Five thousand metres 5000米
Ten thousand metres 10000米
Three thousand metres steeplechase 3000米障碍（跑）
Hundred and ten metres hurdles 110米栏
Four hundred metres hurdles 400米栏
Four by one hundred metres relay 4×100米接力
Four by four hundred metres relay 4×400米接力
Marathon(fouty-two point one nine five kilometres) 马拉松（42.195米）
Road event 场外项目（公路项目）
Twenty kilometre road walk 20公里竞走
Fifty kilometre road walk 50公里竞走
Field events 田赛项目
Jumping/jump event 跳跃项目
High jump 跳高
Long jump 跳远
Triple jump 三级跳远
Pole vault 撑竿跳高
Throwing/throw event 投掷项目
Shot put 推铅球
Discus throw 掷铁饼
Juvelin throw 掷标枪
hammer throw 掷链球
Multi- event 全能项目
Middle distance runner 中跑运动员
Long distance runner 长跑运动员
Relay runner 接力跑运动员
Marathon runner 马拉松运动员
Pole vaulter 撑竿跳高运动员
Combined competitions 全能项目比赛
Basic athletic skill 田径基本技术
Form work 技术练习
Drive leg 蹬地腿
Lead leg 摆动腿
Concentric exercise 动力性练习
Sequence of movement 动作顺序
Sprint training 短跑训练
Repeat runs 反复跑
Auxiliary exercise 辅助练习
Toe press 负重提踵练习
High pressure training 高强度训练
Action series 技术动作连续图
Interval training 间隙跑
Centrifugal force 离心力
Lead arm 领先臂
Lead foot 领先脚
Running velocity 跑速
Running direction 跑向
Running style 跑姿
Forward momentum 前冲力
Racing season 赛季
Running/track shoes 跑鞋
Stretching exercise 伸展活动
Speed endurance 速度耐力
Track-and-field players’ clothes 田径服装
Track season 田径季节
Track star 田径明星
Track and field meet 田径赛
Athletic training 田径训练
Athletic apparatus 田径运动器械
Jumping shoes 跳鞋
Form jumping 跳高姿势练习
Leg action 腿部动作
Leg power 腿部力量
Tension exercise 张力练习
Training burden 训练量
Training intensity 训练强度
Running on spot 原地跑
Starting gun 发令枪
Starting blocks 起跑器
Full speed 全速
Photo finish 终点摄影（照片）
Take-off point 起跳点
Take-off board 起跳板
sand pit 沙坑
throwing circle 投掷圈
Running vest 运动背心
Racing number 胸前号码
Host city 举办城市
Asian Games 亚运会
Olympic Games 奥运会
Athletics World Cup 田径世界杯
World Athletics Championships 世界田径锦标赛
International Amateur Athletic Federation 国际业余田径联合会
Questions and Answers
1. What are the most important competitions in track and field?
The most important international competition is the Olympic Games which take place every four years.
Another important event is the World athletics Championships.
In Asia the most important event is the Asian Games.
At national level, the National Track and Field Championships and the National Youth Championships are the most important.
2. What is the name of the world governing body in track and field?
The world governing body is the IAAF(I, DoubleA, F) The International Amateur Athletic Federation.
3. What is the name of the national governing body in track and field?
The national governing body is the NAF. NAF stands for National Athletic Federation.
4. What are the basic skills of an athlete?
That question is difficult to answer in a few words.
That’s a complicated issue. Perhaps I can give you a brief explanation, outlining
The main points.
For a sprinter, speed and acceleration are important.
For a middle distance runner, a combination of strength, endurance and speed is required.
For a long distance runner, stamina is most important.
5. What are the basic fitness requirements of an athlete?
These include speed, endurance, strength, stamina, agility and flexibility.
6. How can the level of fitness be improved?
The level of fitness can be improved in several ways:
--by increasing the number of miles run every week,
--by intensifying the training,
--by using weight training,
by improving the athlete’s diet.
7. How can an athlete reach peak fitness for a competition?
It is the coach’s responsibility to bring his athletes to peak fitness by the careful structure of his training schedule.
8. What is the optimum starting age, for young athletes?
That depends on the event.
9. At what age should young athletes start to train?
In my country we begin to coach our young athletes at the age of eight.
10. Is track and field part of the school physical education programme?
Yes ,from the age of eleven, youngsters take part in amateur sports activities on a regular basis.
11. In your country, at what level are amateur sports competitions held?
They are held at club level rather than at college level as in the United States.
12. What kinds of training do you recommend for young athletes?
Training should be gradual. The distances covered in training should be increased over several months.
13. What kind of training do you recommend for sprinters?
I recommend practice at three quarters speed over twice the distance of the event. From time to time, the athlete should inject short bursts of maximum speed.
14. Do you recommend full speed trails over the actual distance of the race?
No, this form of training exhausts the runner both physically and mentally.
15. What is the object of training?
The object should be to increase speed and stamina and build up a high energy level.
16. How many hours a day do your middle distance runners train?
They train at least two hours a day.
17. How many miles a week do your long distance athletes run?
Our long distance runner cover a minimum of one hundred miles a week and a maximum of two hundred miles.
18. How do you improve the techniques of your athletes?
We provide them with highly qualified coaches from this country and abroad.
We also study the performance of first class athletes on film and videotape.
19. Could you outline some of the most important features of sprinting?
Firstly sprinting emphasizes stride length and stride frequency.
Secondly sprinting emphasizes high knee lift.
Thirdly sprinting emphasizes arm action.
Lastly a sprinter must have a quick reaction time to the firing of the starting gun.
20. Do you consider a four hundred metre runner as a sprinter or as a middle distance runner?
The event requires both speed and endurance. I personally consider him as a sprinter. Other people consider him as a middle distance runner.
21. How many days does the decathlon competition last?
The decathlon usually lasts two days-----five events on the first day and five events on the second day.
22. Could you describe the technique of the walker to me?
Walking is also called heel and toe walking. The heel of the form foot hits the ground just before the toe of the back foot leaves the ground. So one foot is in contact with the ground at all times.
23. Who is the lead-off man in your relay team?
Our best starter will run the first leg of the relay.
24. Who will run the anchor leg of your relay team?
Our best sprinter will run the anchor leg.
25. What is the most important feature of the relay training?
Baton changing practice is the most important feature.
26. What is the most critical part of the long jump?
The most critical part is the run-up.
27. How does the jumper measure his approach run?
He places markers on the runway which act as check points.
28. What are vaulting poles made of ?
They are made of fiberglass and are extremely flexible.
29. What are the most important qualities of a pole vaulter?
He must have speed, power and agility.
30. What techniques are used in the high jump?
Athletes used to use the straddle jump, the scissors jump and the western roll, Now most top jumpers use the Fosbury Flop.
31. What elements constitute the triple jump?
The triple jump consist of three elements: The hop, the step and the jump.
32. What are the key qualities of the throwing event?
The key qualities are as follows:
Firstly, the thrower must have good coordination. Secondly ,good footwork is of the utmost importance. Thirdly, at the moment of delivery, the back should be straight and the head erect. Fourthly the thrower must have balance, especially during the rotation of his body. He must deliver the missile and at the same time stay inside the throwing circle.
33. What does the act of throwing consist of ?
The act of throwing consists of giving the maximum speed to the missile at the moment when it leaves the hand. The involves acceleration from a resting position.
34. What is the diameter of the throwing ring in the discus event?
The diameter of the throwing ring is 2.5 metres.
35. How much does the discus weigh?
The discus weighs two kilograms for men and one kilogram for women.
36. What is the most important element in throwing the javelin?
The arm action is the most important element.
37. How is it possible to improve the physique and bulk of a shot putter?
Through weight training and improved diet.
38. what is the optimum angle of release of the hammer?
The optimum angle of release is about forty four degrees.
39. What training should coaches be given?
They should be given training in specific sport knowledge, coaching theory, and practical experience.
40. What should coaching theory include?
It should include sport psychology, physiology, anatomy, biomechanics, biochemistry, theory of exercise, and so on.
41. What should practical experience include?
It should include training an athlete and organizing an athlete’s program.
42.Should China invite foreign coaches to improve the skill level of its sportsman?中国应当聘请 外国教练来提高自己运动员的技术水平吗?
This is not an easy question to answer. There are advantages and disadvantages.
43.What are the advantages?
A foreign coach has special knowledge and expertise.
He can improve the training program.
He can set a good example for Chinese coaches.
44.What are the disadvantages?
Inviting a foreign coach is very expensive.
Foreign coaches don’t speak Chinese, so communication is difficult.
They only stay in China for a short time.
45.So what is you opinion?
Maybe foreign coaches achieve temporary improvements but it would be better to spend the money on developing our own national coaching program.
46.Why is it necessary to have top class coaches?
Because top class coaches produce world class athletes.
47.Can an athlete reach his full potential without a top class coach?
No ,he can’t. A top class coach has the experience, knowledge and techniques that an athlete needs.
48.Should China have a development program for coaches?
Yes, there is a development program for athletes, so there should be a development program for coaches too.
49.What are some of the characteristics of a good coach?
He should be good at establishing personal relationships with athletes and officials.
He should have excellent teaching skills and a deep knowledge of his sport.
He should have a good sense of humour.
He should set a good example to his athletes.
50.Are personal relationships important for the coach?
Yes, the coach should be able to get on well with other people.
51.With whom should he establish good relationships?
He should establish good relationships with his athletes, with clubs and officials, and with other coaches.
52. What about his relationships with judges and officials?
He should always respect the work of officials and accept their decisions. Any protest about a decision should be made by the team manager, not by the coach.
Events on the track can be divided into several sections. On the flat, there are sprints, middle distance races and long distance races. There are also the four by one hundred metres relay and the four by four hundred metres relay. In addition, races are run over hurdles and barriers from one hundred and ten metres up to three thousand metres. Extreme distance races include the marathon over forty-two kilometres and the men’s fifty kilometre road walk.
Most track events begin in lanes. From a crouching position in starting blocks, athletes respond to the firing of a starting gun. For sprint races up to four hundred metres, competitors stay in their lanes for the whole race. Over longer distances runners may break lanes. Results are decided by a photo finish. There are certain differences between men’s and women’s events. Women’s events are usually shorter and consist of fewer elements. For example, in multi-event competitions men take part in the decathlon which comprises ten events. Women participate in the heptathlon which is composed of seven events. The men’s sprint hurdle is over one hundred and ten metres. The women’s sprint hurdle is over one hurdle metres. The obstacles are smaller and closer together. This takes into account the physical differences between male and female athletes.
Some events are held outside the stadium. For example, the men’s fifty kilometre walk and the marathon are mainly run on the streets of the host city. However, the final lap always takes place in the stadium in front of the crowd of spectators.
Most race are for individuals, but some are run in relay. Teams of four people pass a baton from hand to hand. This technique requires a high level of practice, split-second timing and good teamwork. It promotes collective responsibility and team spirit.
Track athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and stamima, as well as self-confidence, concentration and mental toughness. The basic athletic skills are common to all sports.
径 赛 项 目
径赛项目可分为若干类.平跑项目有短跑,中距离跑和长距离跑, 还有4×100米接力和4×400米接力. 此外, 有跨栏和障碍赛跑,距离由110米栏到3000米障碍跑.超长距离径赛项目有马拉松, 距离为42公里以上, 还有男子50公里公路竞走.
大多数径赛项目在跑道上起跑. 运动员采用蹲踞姿势, 利用起跑器, 听发令枪声作出反应起跑.短距离比赛, 包括400米, 在整个赛跑过程中运动员都按自己的道次跑. 长跑运动员可以抢道(切入内道).
成绩由终点摄影的照片确定. 男子与女子的(径赛)项目有一定区别. 一般来说, 女子跑的距离短一些, 项目少一些. 如全能比赛男子要参加10项, 女子则参加7项比赛.短距离跨栏,男子是110米, 而女子则100米. 栏的高度和栏间距也低些近些. 这主要是考虑男女运动员之间体力上的差别.
有的项目在体育场外进行. 如男子50公里竞走和马拉松,主要在举办城市的大街上进行.但最后一圈都在运动场, 在广大观众面前进行.
大多数跑的比赛(races)是个人项目, 但是接力跑例外. 由四人组成一队用手传递接力棒,这一技术要求有高水平训练, 时间必须把握准确并且配合默契.接力比赛能提高集体主义责任感和团队精神.
Events in the field can be divided into two sections: jumping and throwing. Jumping events include the high jump, long jump, triple jump and pole vault. Throwing events comprise the javelin, discus, hammer and shotput.
Whereas track races are measured by time, accurate to one hundreth of a second, field events are measured by distance or height in metres. Every athlete is allowed three attempts to achieve a qualifying distance or height. If he is successful, he progresses to the next round.
Except the javelin, throwing events take place inside a throwing circle. There is no run-up. Instead, the athlete rotates his body across the circle and releases his missile using a combination of explosive strength and speed.
Jumping events require an approach run in order to generate speed. The athlete must hit the take-off point on the proper foot, or hit the take-off board without overstepping the line. Vaulters also use a run-up to convert horizontal speed into vertical lift. The pole is made of fiberglass which is extremely flexible. Jumpers and pole vaulters land in a pit filled with sand or foam rubber.
Field events require highly technical specialized skills. The decathlon and heptathlon include both track and field events and are suitable for the all-round athlete. Results are measured by the combined total number of points for all events.
Field athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, balance, good footwork and coordination.
田 赛 项 目
田赛项目可分为两类, 跳跃和投掷. 跳跃项目包括跳高,跳远,三级跳远和撑竿跳高. 投掷项目包括标枪,铁饼,链球和铅球.
径赛项目由时间测定(成绩), 精确至百分之一秒, 而田赛项目则由距离或高度, 以米和厘米测定. 每位运动员允许度跳(投)三次, 以成绩确定是否有资格参加下一轮比赛.
除标枪外, 投掷项目都在投掷圈内进行, 不用助跑. 运动员靠在限制圈内的身体旋转, 运用爆发力和速度把器械(投掷物)抛出.
跳跃项目需要助跑, 以产生速度, 运动员必须用起跳脚踏上起跳点或起跳板, 而不能超越起跳线. 撑竿跳高运动员也使用助跑, 把水平速度转化为纵向力量. 撑竿是由纤维玻璃钢制造, 具有良好的柔韧性, 跳跃项目的运动员和撑竿跳运动员在由沙子或泡沫橡胶作成的坑(垫)上着地.
田赛项目要求有高水平的专项技术和技巧. 十项和七项运动都含有径赛和田赛两类项目. 这对全能项目运动员来说是适宜的.(全能项目)成绩是由参赛各项成绩所得分数的总和确定.