BILINGUAL TEACHING PROGRAM OF TRACK AND FIELD FOR
 GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE

                     
PREFACE



  This program is made according to the requirements and oriented aims of education plan of GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE and the practical conditions of the students and the teaching of Track and Field. The program regulates the textbook, teaching tasks, teaching contents, teaching hours of the events, the forms of teaching, evaluation of examination and teaching measurements, which is the main foundation of the teaching work. Track and Field Teachers must strictly follow the basic requirements of the program during their teaching work.

                     OBJECTIVES AND TASKS

  According to the teaching aims and requirements regulated by the education plan of GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE, the main objective and task of the track and field compulsory course are to make all students of this course be able to study and master systematically the basic theories, basic techniques and basic practical skills of track and field, and to train and cultivate their practical abilities of conducting the teaching, training, judging and organizing of the athletics competition and the management of the facilities of the track and field.

                     EVENTS AND CLASS HOURS

  There are 68 teaching class hours for the track and field course each term on the basis of four-year education plan of the institute. The reference textbook will mainly be <<English for Coach>> edited by Yi hou-gao, etc. Published by People Sport Press. and <<The Techniques of Athletics English-Chinese Bilingual Textbook>>, edited by Shen Nan and Ma ying-kang, Published by Beijing Sport University Press. The teaching material will be edited by the professional vice-professors of Track and Field who are responsible for the teaching, it must be the combination of systematic knowledge and modern developing trend of Track and Field. The classes of the course will be executed in the forms of theoretical lecturing, technical teaching, independent assignment and evaluation of the examination.

  Theoretical classes include the following basis contents: Introduction and development of track and field, Technical principles, Organization of track and field competition, Judging methods of the competition, The grounds for track and field, Sprint, Hurdle, High jump, Long jump, Shot put and Javelin Throw. Teachers must make the above topics well understood and use the theories of track and field directing the practice of the course by taking consideration of the students’ practical situation in the teaching.

  Technical classes including key events (Sprint, Hurdle, High Jump, Long jump, Shot put and Javelin throw) and introductory events (Race walk, Middle and long distance run, Relay, Triple jump, Pole vault, Discus throw and Hammer throw ). The teaching of the key events usually includes the objective and significance of the event, introduction and development, ground and equipment, rules of competition, technique and action, teaching methods (lecturing, demonstration of the action, teaching procedure, application of teaching means, methods of observing, analyzing and correcting the technical mistakes, training methods and safe measurements). The aim of technical classes is to make sure that the students could systematically master the basic theories, basic techniques and basic skills of the events by means of teaching, assignment, technical evaluation and test of performance after the practical learning of the above events.

                      TEACHING CONTENTS

      THEORETICAL PART
1. Introduction and Development of Track and Field
  History of Athletics
  Classification of Athletics Events
  The Developing Trend of Track and Field
  Safe Measurements
2. Technical Principles of Walk and Run
  Period for Walk and Run Action
  Forces Influencing the Speed of Run
  Factors Determining the Speed of Run
  Constitute of Run Technique
3. Technical Principles of Jumping
  Mechanical Principles of Jumping
  Factors Determining the Jump Distance and Height
  Constitute of Jumping Technique
4. Technical Principles of Throwing
  Mechanical Principles of Throwing
  Factors Determining the Throwing Distance
  Constitute of Throwing Technique
5. Organization of Track and Field Competition
  Preparing Organizing Work for Athletics Meet
  Numbering and Recording Work for Athletics Meet
  Preparing Work of Competition Grounds and Facilities
6. Judging Methods for Track and Field Competition
  Per-competition Preparation Work
  Judging Methods for Track Events
  Judging Methods for Field Events
  Judging Methods for Decathlon and Heptathlon
  Judging Methods for Race Walk and Marathon
  Wind Speed Recording and Announcement
7. Grounds for Track and Field
  Basic Requirements of Track and Field Ground
  Track Events Grounds
  Field Events Grounds
  Building of Track and Field Grounds

            TECHNICAL PART

1. Race Walking
  Introduction and Development of Race Walk
  Technique of Race Walk
  Teaching Methods for Race Walk
2. Sprint
  Introduction and Development of Sprint
  Specific Exercises of Running Learning
  Technique of Sprint
  Teaching and Training of Sprint
  Rules for Sprint Competition
3. Middle and Long Distance Running
  Introduction and Development of the Event
  Technique of Middle and Long Distance Running
  Tactics of Middle and Long Distance Running
  Teaching and Training of the Event
  Technique of Cross-country Running
  Rules for Long Distance Run Competition
4. Relay
  4x100 Meter Relay Technique
  4x400 Meter Relay Technique
  Teaching and Training of Relay
5. Hurdling
  Introduction and Development of Hurdles
  Technique of Hurdling
  Teaching for the Curved Track Hurdling
  Teaching and Training of Hurdling
  Rules for Hurdling Competition
6. High Jump
  Introduction and Development of High Jump
  Technique of Fosbury Style High Jump
  Technique of Straddle Style High Jump
  Rules for High Jump Competition
7. Long Jump
  Introduction and Development of Long Jump
  Technique of Long Jump
  Teaching and Training of Long Jump
  Rules for Long Jump Competition
8. Shot Put
  Introduction and Development of shot Put
  O’Brien Style Shot Put Technique
  Teaching and Training of Shot Put
  Introduction of Rotating Style Shot Put
  Rules for Shot Put Competition
9. Javelin Throw
  Introduction and Development of Javelin Throw
  Technique of Javelin Throw
  Teaching and Training of Javelin Throw
  Rules for Javelin Throw Competition
10. Triple Jump, Pole Vault and Discus Throw
  Introduction and Development of the Events
  Teaching and Training of the Events
  Rules for the Above Events Competition

             EXAMINATION OF THE COURSE

  Examination of the course is an important part in the teaching, and also an effective method to evaluate the teaching. In order to make students review and consolidate athletics basic theories, basic techniques and basic skills, and to improve their abilities of analyzing or solving problems and the teaching quality of the course, the examination of the athletics will include the following three parts: Theories, Evaluation of Technique and Test of performance with the details of contents and basic requirements.

  Theoretical Exams: The examinations will be conducted by the end of last term. The contents of the examination will include the theories, techniques of the teaching course and teaching and training methods of the events.

  Evaluation of practical techniques includes Sprint, Hurdle, Fosbury High Jump, Long Jump, Shot Put and Javelin Throw.
  1. Sprint: Technique of 60 meter dash with the staggered start
  2. Hurdle: Three hurdle clearance after start (hurdle height 91.4 cm for men, 76.2 cm for women, distances between hurdles 8.9 meters for men, 7.5meters for women)
  3. Fosbury Style High Jump: Evaluation Height 1.35 meters for men and 1.2 meters for women
  4. Long Jump: Above 8 steps whole approach long jump
  5. Shot Put: backward shift style shot put, shot weight 5 kg for men and 4 kg for women
  6. Javelin Throw: Whole approach javelin throwing, javelin weight 600g for men and women

            DISTRLBUTION OF TEACHING CLASS HOURS

  EVENTS               CLASS HOURS
  INTRODUCTION OF ATHLETICS       2
  RUNNING PRINCIPLES           2
  JUMPING PRINCIPLES           2
  THROWING PRINCIPLE           2
  JUDGING METHOD             2
  GROUNDS OF ATHLETICS          2
  ATHLETICS TEACHING           2
  ATHLETICS TRAINING           2
  WALK, LONG D RUNNING          8
  SPRINT, RELAY             16
  HURDL                 16
  HIGH JUMP               16
  LONG JUMP               16
  SHOT PU                16
  JAVELIN THROW             16
  TRIPLE JUMP               4
  POLE VAULT               4
  DISCUS THROW              4
  EXAMINATION               4
  TOTAL                 136


                  REFERENCES

  1. Yi hou-gao, etc. <<English for Coach>>, People Sport Press.1994
  2.Shen Nan and Ma ying-kang <<The Techniques of Athletics English-Chinese Bilingual Textbook>>, Beijing Sport University Press. 2003
  3. Gerry A, Carr Fundamentals of Track and Field, Gerry A, Carr---Leisure Press. Champaign, Illinois
  4. William J. Bowerman High-performance Training for Track and Field, William J. Bowerman---Leisure Press, Champaign, Illinois
  5..The Athletics Congress’s TRACK AND FIELD COACHING MANUAL 1989.
  6.Wkllirm J Bowerman & Willirm H. Freeman High-Performance Training For Track and Field.
  7.Gerry A. Carr Fundamentals Of Track and Field.1990.
  8. 张贵敏等 全国体育学院通用教材 田径运动中级教程 人民体育出版社 1999



           Glossary

  Track and Field             田径运动 (Athletics;英)
  Track and Field Events          田径项目
  Track events               径赛项目
  One hundred metres            100米
  Two hundred metres            200米
  Four hundred metres           400米
  Eight hundred metres           800米
  Fifteen hundred metres          1500米
  Five thousand metres           5000米
  Ten thousand metres           10000米
  Three thousand metres steeplechase    3000米障碍(跑)
  Hundred and ten metres hurdles      110米栏
  Four hundred metres hurdles       400米栏
  Four by one hundred metres relay     4×100米接力
  Four by four hundred metres relay    4×400米接力
  Marathon(fouty-two point one nine five kilometres) 马拉松(42.195米)
  Road event                场外项目(公路项目)
  Twenty kilometre road walk        20公里竞走
  Fifty kilometre road walk        50公里竞走
  Field events               田赛项目
  Jumping/jump event            跳跃项目
  High jump                跳高
  Long jump                跳远
  Triple jump               三级跳远
  Pole vault                撑竿跳高
  Throwing/throw event           投掷项目
  Shot put                 推铅球
  Discus throw               掷铁饼
  Juvelin throw              掷标枪
  hammer throw               掷链球
  Multi- event               全能项目
  Heptathlon                七项全能运动
  Decathlon                十项全能运动
  Athlete                 运动员
  Sprinter                 短跑运动员
  Middle distance runner          中跑运动员
  Long distance runner           长跑运动员
  Hurdler                 跨栏跑运动员
  Relay runner               接力跑运动员
  Marathon runner             马拉松运动员
  Walker                  竞走运动员
  Pole vaulter               撑竿跳高运动员
  Combined competitions          全能项目比赛
  Decathlete                十项全能运动员
  Basic athletic skill           田径基本技术
  Form work                技术练习
  Drive leg                蹬地腿
  Lead leg                 摆动腿
  Overstride                步子过大
  Steps-ups                单足踏步练习
  Concentric exercise           动力性练习
  Sequence of movement           动作顺序
  Sprint training             短跑训练
  Repeat runs               反复跑
  Auxiliary exercise            辅助练习
  Toe press                负重提踵练习
  High pressure training          高强度训练
  Action series              技术动作连续图
  Buildup                 加速跑冲刺跑练习
  Interval training            间隙跑
  Track                  径赛场地
  Centrifugal force            离心力
  Lead arm                 领先臂
  Lead foot                领先脚
  Round                  轮次(径赛)
  Running velocity             跑速
  Running direction            跑向
  Running style              跑姿
  Forward momentum             前冲力
  Round                   赛次(田赛)
  Racing season              赛季
  Running/track shoes           跑鞋
  Spike                  钉(跑鞋)
  Warmup                  热身运动
  Stretching exercise           伸展活动
  Speed                  速度
  Strength                 力量
  Endurance                耐力
  Flexbility                柔韧性
  Speed endurance             速度耐力
  Track-and-field players’ clothes    田径服装
  Track season               田径季节
  Track star                田径明星
  Track and field meet           田径赛
  Athletic training            田径训练
  Athletic apparatus            田径运动器械
  Field                  田赛场地
  Jumping shoes              跳鞋
  Form jumping               跳高姿势练习
  Leg action                腿部动作
  Leg power                腿部力量
  Tension exercise             张力练习
  Training burden             训练量
  Training intensity            训练强度
  Running on spot             原地跑
  Starting gun               发令枪
  Fire                   开枪
  Starting blocks              起跑器
  Respond                  反应
  Full speed                 全速
  Finish                   结束、终点
  Photo finish                终点摄影(照片)
  Baton                   接力棒
  Run-up                   助跑
  Take-off point               起跳点
  Take-off board               起跳板
  Overstepping                踏(过)线犯规
  Horizontal                 水平的
  vertical                  垂直的
  sand pit                  沙坑
  rotate                   旋转
  throwing circle              投掷圈
  Running vest                运动背心
  Racing number               胸前号码
  Host city                 举办城市
  Spectator                 观众
  Asian Games                亚运会
  Olympic Games               奥运会
  Athletics World Cup            田径世界杯
  World Athletics Championships       世界田径锦标赛
  International Amateur Athletic Federation 国际业余田径联合会

          Questions and Answers

1. What are the most important competitions in track and field?
  最重要的田径比赛有哪些?
  The most important international competition is the Olympic Games which take place every four years.
  最重要的比赛是四年一届的奥运会.
  Another important event is the World athletics Championships.
  另一重要赛事是世界田径锦标赛.
  In Asia the most important event is the Asian Games.
  在亚洲最重要的赛事是亚运会.
  At national level, the National Track and Field Championships and the National Youth Championships are the most important.
  全国性比赛,全国田径锦标赛,全国青年田径锦标赛是国内最重要的比赛.
2. What is the name of the world governing body in track and field?
  世界田径运动领导机构的名称是什么?
  The world governing body is the IAAF(I, DoubleA, F) The International Amateur Athletic Federation.
  世界性领导机构的名称是,国际业余田径联合会.
3. What is the name of the national governing body in track and field?
  田径的全国管理机构的名称是什么?
  The national governing body is the NAF. NAF stands for National Athletic Federation.
  全国性机构的名称是全国田径运动协会.
4. What are the basic skills of an athlete?
  田径运动员的基本技术是什么?
  That question is difficult to answer in a few words.
  这个问题三言两语很难说明白.
  That’s a complicated issue. Perhaps I can give you a brief explanation, outlining
  The main points.
  这是个很复杂的问题,也许我可以简单解释一下,讲讲主要问题.
  For a sprinter, speed and acceleration are important.
  对短跑运动员来说,速度和加速能力是重要的.
  For a middle distance runner, a combination of strength, endurance and speed is required.
  中距离跑运动员需要把力量,耐力,速度很好地结合起来.
  For a long distance runner, stamina is most important.
  长跑运动员耐力是最主要的.
5. What are the basic fitness requirements of an athlete?
  对运动员身体素质的基本要求是什么?
  These include speed, endurance, strength, stamina, agility and flexibility.
  这些素质包括:速度,耐力,力量,持久力,灵活性和柔韧性.
6. How can the level of fitness be improved?
  怎样才能提高身体素质水平?
  The level of fitness can be improved in several ways:
  提高身体素质水平有几种方法:
  --by increasing the number of miles run every week,
  加长每周跑的距离,
  --by intensifying the training,
  提高训练强度,
  --by using weight training,
  运用负重训练,
  by improving the athlete’s diet.
  改善运动员的饮食.
7. How can an athlete reach peak fitness for a competition?
  怎样才能使运动员的身体素质达到最佳状态?
  It is the coach’s responsibility to bring his athletes to peak fitness by the careful structure of his training schedule.
  精心安排训练计划结构,使自己的运动员处于最佳的身体素质状态是教练员的责任.
8. What is the optimum starting age, for young athletes?
  少年运动员开始训练的最佳起始年龄是多少?
  That depends on the event.
  这要看是什么项目.
9. At what age should young athletes start to train?
  少年运动员几岁开始进行运动训练为好?
  In my country we begin to coach our young athletes at the age of eight.
  在我国,我们对达到8岁的儿童开始进行运动训练.
10. Is track and field part of the school physical education programme?
  田径运动是学校体育课程内容的组成部分吗?
  Yes ,from the age of eleven, youngsters take part in amateur sports activities on a regular basis.
  是的,从十一岁开始少年们就系统地参加业余体育竞技运动.
11. In your country, at what level are amateur sports competitions held?
  贵国的业余运动竞赛在哪一级组织举行?
  They are held at club level rather than at college level as in the United States.
  这些竞赛在俱乐部一级举行,而不象美国在大学中进行.
12. What kinds of training do you recommend for young athletes?
  你对青少年应进行何种训练有何建议?
  Training should be gradual. The distances covered in training should be increased over several months.
  训练应循序渐进.训练(跑)的距离应在几个月内逐渐增加.
13. What kind of training do you recommend for sprinters?
  对短跑运动员的训练内容你有什么建议?
  I recommend practice at three quarters speed over twice the distance of the event. From time to time, the athlete should inject short bursts of maximum speed.
  我建议按该项目两倍以上的距离以75%的速度跑进行训练,有时插入短程全速跑的训练内容.
14. Do you recommend full speed trails over the actual distance of the race?
  你建议用实际全程距离进行全速跑训练吗?
  No, this form of training exhausts the runner both physically and mentally.
  不,这种训练方法会使运动员身心两方面精疲力竭.
15. What is the object of training?
  训练的目标是什么?
  The object should be to increase speed and stamina and build up a high energy level.
  训练目标应当是提高速度和耐力而且应形成高水平的体能.
16. How many hours a day do your middle distance runners train?
  你们的中距离跑运动员一天训练几小时?
  They train at least two hours a day.
  他们一天至少训练两个小时.
17. How many miles a week do your long distance athletes run?
  你们的长跑运动员一周跑多少英里?
  Our long distance runner cover a minimum of one hundred miles a week and a maximum of two hundred miles.
  我们的长跑运动员一周最少跑100英里,最多达200英里.
18. How do you improve the techniques of your athletes?
  你们如何改进运动员的技术?
  We provide them with highly qualified coaches from this country and abroad.
  我们给他们提供高质量的教练员,即有国内的,也有国外的.
  We also study the performance of first class athletes on film and videotape.
  我们也利用电影和录像研究第一流运动员的动作技术.
  19. Could you outline some of the most important features of sprinting?
  你能大致介绍一下短跑项目几个最重要的特点吗?
  Firstly sprinting emphasizes stride length and stride frequency.
  第一点,短跑重视步长和步频.
  Secondly sprinting emphasizes high knee lift.
  第二点,短跑强调提膝.
  Thirdly sprinting emphasizes arm action.
  第三点,短跑强调摆臂动作.
  Lastly a sprinter must have a quick reaction time to the firing of the starting gun.
  最后,一个短跑运动员,必须对发令枪声能做出迅速的反应.
20. Do you consider a four hundred metre runner as a sprinter or as a middle distance runner?
  你认为400米跑运动员是短跑运动员还是中距离跑运动员?
  The event requires both speed and endurance. I personally consider him as a sprinter. Other people consider him as a middle distance runner.
这个项目既需要速度又需要耐力,我个人认为他是短跑运动员,而有人认为他是中距离跑运动员.
21. How many days does the decathlon competition last?
  十项全能比赛进行几天?
  The decathlon usually lasts two days-----five events on the first day and five events on the second day.
  十项全能一般进行两天,第一天五项,第二天五项.
22. Could you describe the technique of the walker to me?
  你能给我们解释一下竞走运动员的技术吗?
  Walking is also called heel and toe walking. The heel of the form foot hits the ground just before the toe of the back foot leaves the ground. So one foot is in contact with the ground at all times.
  竞走也称作足踵和足趾走.前足踵着地后足趾才能抬起来.因此,必须有一只脚始终着地.
23. Who is the lead-off man in your relay team?
  你们接力队的第一棒的队员是谁?
  Our best starter will run the first leg of the relay.
  我队起跑最好的运动员跑第一棒.
24. Who will run the anchor leg of your relay team?
  你队谁跑最后一棒?
  Our best sprinter will run the anchor leg.
  我们最好的短跑选手跑最后一棒.
25. What is the most important feature of the relay training?
  接力跑训练最重要的因素是什么?
  Baton changing practice is the most important feature.
  接棒训练是最重要的一环.
26. What is the most critical part of the long jump?
  跳远的关键技术是什么?
  The most critical part is the run-up.
  跳远的关键技术是助跑.
27. How does the jumper measure his approach run?
  跳远运动员怎样测量助跑步点?
  运动员把标志物放在助跑道上,用来检查步点(是否正确).
  He places markers on the runway which act as check points.
28. What are vaulting poles made of ?
  撑杆是什么制造的?
  They are made of fiberglass and are extremely flexible.
  竿是由纤维玻璃钢制成,弹性极好.
29. What are the most important qualities of a pole vaulter?
  撑杆跳高运动员最重要的素质是什么?
  He must have speed, power and agility.
  他必须有很好的速度,力量和灵敏的素质.
30. What techniques are used in the high jump?
  跳高用哪些技术?
  Athletes used to use the straddle jump, the scissors jump and the western roll, Now most top jumpers use the Fosbury Flop.
  运动员过去常用跨越式,剪式和滚式.现在大多数尖子跳高运动员采用背越式.
31. What elements constitute the triple jump?
  三级跳远的技术由哪几部分构成?
  The triple jump consist of three elements: The hop, the step and the jump.
  三级跳远由单足跳,跨步跳和跳跃三个动作组成.
32. What are the key qualities of the throwing event?
  投掷项目的关键技术是什么?
  The key qualities are as follows:
  关键技术如下:
  Firstly, the thrower must have good coordination. Secondly ,good footwork is of the utmost importance. Thirdly, at the moment of delivery, the back should be straight and the head erect. Fourthly the thrower must have balance, especially during the rotation of his body. He must deliver the missile and at the same time stay inside the throwing circle.
  首先,投掷运动员必须有很好的协调性;其次,步法正确极端重要;第三,器械出手的瞬间背要直,头要抬起;第四,投掷运动员必须有平衡能力,特别是身体旋转时,在器械出手的瞬间,运动员必须留在投掷圈内.
33. What does the act of throwing consist of ?
  投掷动作由什么构成?
  The act of throwing consists of giving the maximum speed to the missile at the moment when it leaves the hand. The involves acceleration from a resting position.
  这一动作是在器械出手时给与它以最大速度构成的.这涉及到由起始姿势开始给以加速度的问题.
34. What is the diameter of the throwing ring in the discus event?
  铁饼投掷圈的直径多大?
  The diameter of the throwing ring is 2.5 metres.
  投掷圈的直径是2.5米.
35. How much does the discus weigh?
  铁饼的重量是多少?
  The discus weighs two kilograms for men and one kilogram for women.
  男子铁饼2公斤,女子1公斤.
36. What is the most important element in throwing the javelin?
  投掷标枪,最重要的动作是什么?
  The arm action is the most important element.
  手臂的动作是最重要的.
37. How is it possible to improve the physique and bulk of a shot putter?
  怎样才能改进铅球运动员的体格和自重(块头)?
  Through weight training and improved diet.
  通过负重训练和改进饮食(营养).
38. what is the optimum angle of release of the hammer?
  链球最佳的投掷出手角度是多少?
  The optimum angle of release is about forty four degrees.
  最佳的投出角度大约44度.
39. What training should coaches be given?
  应当给予教练员哪些方面的培训?
  They should be given training in specific sport knowledge, coaching theory, and practical experience.
  他们应在专项运动知识,训练理论和实践经验等方面得到培训.
40. What should coaching theory include?
  训练理论包括什么内容?
  It should include sport psychology, physiology, anatomy, biomechanics, biochemistry, theory of exercise, and so on.
  它包括运动心理,生理,解剖学,生物力学,生物化学,训练学等.
41. What should practical experience include?
  实践经验包括哪些内容?
  It should include training an athlete and organizing an athlete’s program.
  它包括对运动员进行训练和编制运动员训练计划方面的具体内容.
42.Should China invite foreign coaches to improve the skill level of its sportsman?中国应当聘请  外国教练来提高自己运动员的技术水平吗?
  This is not an easy question to answer. There are advantages and disadvantages.
  这是个不好回答的问题.
  这有有利的方面和不利的方面.
43.What are the advantages?
  有利的方面是什么?
  A foreign coach has special knowledge and expertise.
  外国教练具有专门的知识和专长.
  He can improve the training program.
  他可以改进训练计划的安排.
  He can set a good example for Chinese coaches.
  他可以为中国教练做好的示范.
44.What are the disadvantages?
  不利的方面是什么?
  Inviting a foreign coach is very expensive.
  聘请外国教练费用太贵.
  Foreign coaches don’t speak Chinese, so communication is difficult.
  外国教练不会讲汉语,沟通很困难.
  They only stay in China for a short time.
  他们只能在中国呆很短一段时间.
45.So what is you opinion?
  那么你说怎么办好?
  Maybe foreign coaches achieve temporary improvements but it would be better to spend the money on developing our own national coaching program.
  外国教练可能(使我们的训练工作)暂时取得一些进展,然而最好拿出经费开展我们自己国家的教练员培训计划.
46.Why is it necessary to have top class coaches?
  为什么需要有最高水平教练人员?
  Because top class coaches produce world class athletes.
  因为只有最高水平的教练人员才能培养出世界水平的运动员.
47.Can an athlete reach his full potential without a top class coach?
  没有高水平的教练员,能使运动员发挥出他们的全部潜力吗?
  No ,he can’t. A top class coach has the experience, knowledge and techniques that an athlete needs.
  不可能.最高级的教练员有运动员所必需的经验,知识和技术.
48.Should China have a development program for coaches?
  中国应需要有培养和提高教练员的计划吗?
  Yes, there is a development program for athletes, so there should be a development program for coaches too.
  是的,目前有培养提高运动员的计划,而培养提高教练员的计划也同样必需.
49.What are some of the characteristics of a good coach?
  优秀教练员有什么特点?
  He should be good at establishing personal relationships with athletes and officials.
  他应当与运动员和各方面人员树立起良好的个人关系.
  He should have excellent teaching skills and a deep knowledge of his sport.
  他应当具有出色的教育技巧和对其专项运动有深邃的理论知识.
  He should have a good sense of humour.
  他应当有很好的幽默感.
  He should set a good example to his athletes.
  他应当给运动员做榜样.
50.Are personal relationships important for the coach?
  作为一名教练,个人关系问题重要吗?
  Yes, the coach should be able to get on well with other people.
  是的,教练员必须有能力与其他人保持良好关系.
51.With whom should he establish good relationships?
  应当与哪些人建立良好关系?
  He should establish good relationships with his athletes, with clubs and officials, and with other coaches.
  他应当与自己的运动员,与各俱乐部的行政人员与其他教练员搞好关系.
52. What about his relationships with judges and officials?
  与裁判员和工作人员的关系如何处理?
  He should always respect the work of officials and accept their decisions. Any protest about a decision should be made by the team manager, not by the coach.
  他应当始终尊重裁判人员的工作并接受他们的裁决,对任何裁决的抗议应当由领队去交涉,而不是由教练员本人.

Track  Events


  Events on the track can be divided into several sections. On the flat, there are sprints, middle distance races and long distance races. There are also the four by one hundred metres relay and the four by four hundred metres relay. In addition, races are run over hurdles and barriers from one hundred and ten metres up to three thousand metres. Extreme distance races include the marathon over forty-two kilometres and the men’s fifty kilometre road walk.
  Most track events begin in lanes. From a crouching position in starting blocks, athletes respond to the firing of a starting gun. For sprint races up to four hundred metres, competitors stay in their lanes for the whole race. Over longer distances runners may break lanes. Results are decided by a photo finish. There are certain differences between men’s and women’s events. Women’s events are usually shorter and consist of fewer elements. For example, in multi-event competitions men take part in the decathlon which comprises ten events. Women participate in the heptathlon which is composed of seven events. The men’s sprint hurdle is over one hundred and ten metres. The women’s sprint hurdle is over one hurdle metres. The obstacles are smaller and closer together. This takes into account the physical differences between male and female athletes.
  Some events are held outside the stadium. For example, the men’s fifty kilometre walk and the marathon are mainly run on the streets of the host city. However, the final lap always takes place in the stadium in front of the crowd of spectators.
Most race are for individuals, but some are run in relay. Teams of four people pass a baton from hand to hand. This technique requires a high level of practice, split-second timing and good teamwork. It promotes collective responsibility and team spirit.
Track athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and stamima, as well as self-confidence, concentration and mental toughness. The basic athletic skills are common to all sports.

径 赛 项 目


  径赛项目可分为若干类.平跑项目有短跑,中距离跑和长距离跑, 还有4×100米接力和4×400米接力. 此外, 有跨栏和障碍赛跑,距离由110米栏到3000米障碍跑.超长距离径赛项目有马拉松, 距离为42公里以上, 还有男子50公里公路竞走.
  大多数径赛项目在跑道上起跑. 运动员采用蹲踞姿势, 利用起跑器, 听发令枪声作出反应起跑.短距离比赛, 包括400米, 在整个赛跑过程中运动员都按自己的道次跑. 长跑运动员可以抢道(切入内道).
成绩由终点摄影的照片确定. 男子与女子的(径赛)项目有一定区别. 一般来说, 女子跑的距离短一些, 项目少一些. 如全能比赛男子要参加10项, 女子则参加7项比赛.短距离跨栏,男子是110米, 而女子则100米. 栏的高度和栏间距也低些近些. 这主要是考虑男女运动员之间体力上的差别.
有的项目在体育场外进行. 如男子50公里竞走和马拉松,主要在举办城市的大街上进行.但最后一圈都在运动场, 在广大观众面前进行.
  大多数跑的比赛(races)是个人项目, 但是接力跑例外. 由四人组成一队用手传递接力棒,这一技术要求有高水平训练, 时间必须把握准确并且配合默契.接力比赛能提高集体主义责任感和团队精神.
田径运动员需要把速度,力量,耐力,柔韧和持久力结合起来,还必须有信心,注意力集中,心理上稳定.田径运动的基本技术对所有其他运动项目具有普遍意义.

Field  Events


  Events in the field can be divided into two sections: jumping and throwing. Jumping events include the high jump, long jump, triple jump and pole vault. Throwing events comprise the javelin, discus, hammer and shotput.
  Whereas track races are measured by time, accurate to one hundreth of a second, field events are measured by distance or height in metres. Every athlete is allowed three attempts to achieve a qualifying distance or height. If he is successful, he progresses to the next round.
Except the javelin, throwing events take place inside a throwing circle. There is no run-up. Instead, the athlete rotates his body across the circle and releases his missile using a combination of explosive strength and speed.
  Jumping events require an approach run in order to generate speed. The athlete must hit the take-off point on the proper foot, or hit the take-off board without overstepping the line. Vaulters also use a run-up to convert horizontal speed into vertical lift. The pole is made of fiberglass which is extremely flexible. Jumpers and pole vaulters land in a pit filled with sand or foam rubber.
  Field events require highly technical specialized skills. The decathlon and heptathlon include both track and field events and are suitable for the all-round athlete. Results are measured by the combined total number of points for all events.
Field athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, balance, good footwork and coordination.

田 赛 项 目


  田赛项目可分为两类, 跳跃和投掷. 跳跃项目包括跳高,跳远,三级跳远和撑竿跳高. 投掷项目包括标枪,铁饼,链球和铅球.
  径赛项目由时间测定(成绩), 精确至百分之一秒, 而田赛项目则由距离或高度, 以米和厘米测定. 每位运动员允许度跳(投)三次, 以成绩确定是否有资格参加下一轮比赛.
除标枪外, 投掷项目都在投掷圈内进行, 不用助跑. 运动员靠在限制圈内的身体旋转, 运用爆发力和速度把器械(投掷物)抛出.
  跳跃项目需要助跑, 以产生速度, 运动员必须用起跳脚踏上起跳点或起跳板, 而不能超越起跳线. 撑竿跳高运动员也使用助跑, 把水平速度转化为纵向力量. 撑竿是由纤维玻璃钢制造, 具有良好的柔韧性, 跳跃项目的运动员和撑竿跳运动员在由沙子或泡沫橡胶作成的坑(垫)上着地.
  田赛项目要求有高水平的专项技术和技巧. 十项和七项运动都含有径赛和田赛两类项目. 这对全能项目运动员来说是适宜的.(全能项目)成绩是由参赛各项成绩所得分数的总和确定.
田赛运动员需要把速度,力量,耐力,平衡,合理的步法和协调性很好地结合起来.