This program is made according to the requirements and oriented aims of education plan of GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE and the practical conditions of the students and the teaching of Track and Field. The program regulates the textbook, teaching tasks, teaching contents, teaching hours of the events, the forms of teaching, evaluation of examination and teaching measurements, which is the main foundation of the teaching work. Track and Field Teachers must strictly follow the basic requirements of the program during their teaching work.

                     OBJECTIVES AND TASKS

  According to the teaching aims and requirements regulated by the education plan of GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE, the main objective and task of the track and field compulsory course are to make all students of this course be able to study and master systematically the basic theories, basic techniques and basic practical skills of track and field, and to train and cultivate their practical abilities of conducting the teaching, training, judging and organizing of the athletics competition and the management of the facilities of the track and field.

                     EVENTS AND CLASS HOURS

  There are 68 teaching class hours for the track and field course each term on the basis of four-year education plan of the institute. The reference textbook will mainly be <<English for Coach>> edited by Yi hou-gao, etc. Published by People Sport Press. and <<The Techniques of Athletics English-Chinese Bilingual Textbook>>, edited by Shen Nan and Ma ying-kang, Published by Beijing Sport University Press. The teaching material will be edited by the professional vice-professors of Track and Field who are responsible for the teaching, it must be the combination of systematic knowledge and modern developing trend of Track and Field. The classes of the course will be executed in the forms of theoretical lecturing, technical teaching, independent assignment and evaluation of the examination.

  Theoretical classes include the following basis contents: Introduction and development of track and field, Technical principles, Organization of track and field competition, Judging methods of the competition, The grounds for track and field, Sprint, Hurdle, High jump, Long jump, Shot put and Javelin Throw. Teachers must make the above topics well understood and use the theories of track and field directing the practice of the course by taking consideration of the students’ practical situation in the teaching.

  Technical classes including key events (Sprint, Hurdle, High Jump, Long jump, Shot put and Javelin throw) and introductory events (Race walk, Middle and long distance run, Relay, Triple jump, Pole vault, Discus throw and Hammer throw ). The teaching of the key events usually includes the objective and significance of the event, introduction and development, ground and equipment, rules of competition, technique and action, teaching methods (lecturing, demonstration of the action, teaching procedure, application of teaching means, methods of observing, analyzing and correcting the technical mistakes, training methods and safe measurements). The aim of technical classes is to make sure that the students could systematically master the basic theories, basic techniques and basic skills of the events by means of teaching, assignment, technical evaluation and test of performance after the practical learning of the above events.

                      TEACHING CONTENTS

1. Introduction and Development of Track and Field
  History of Athletics
  Classification of Athletics Events
  The Developing Trend of Track and Field
  Safe Measurements
2. Technical Principles of Walk and Run
  Period for Walk and Run Action
  Forces Influencing the Speed of Run
  Factors Determining the Speed of Run
  Constitute of Run Technique
3. Technical Principles of Jumping
  Mechanical Principles of Jumping
  Factors Determining the Jump Distance and Height
  Constitute of Jumping Technique
4. Technical Principles of Throwing
  Mechanical Principles of Throwing
  Factors Determining the Throwing Distance
  Constitute of Throwing Technique
5. Organization of Track and Field Competition
  Preparing Organizing Work for Athletics Meet
  Numbering and Recording Work for Athletics Meet
  Preparing Work of Competition Grounds and Facilities
6. Judging Methods for Track and Field Competition
  Per-competition Preparation Work
  Judging Methods for Track Events
  Judging Methods for Field Events
  Judging Methods for Decathlon and Heptathlon
  Judging Methods for Race Walk and Marathon
  Wind Speed Recording and Announcement
7. Grounds for Track and Field
  Basic Requirements of Track and Field Ground
  Track Events Grounds
  Field Events Grounds
  Building of Track and Field Grounds

            TECHNICAL PART

1. Race Walking
  Introduction and Development of Race Walk
  Technique of Race Walk
  Teaching Methods for Race Walk
2. Sprint
  Introduction and Development of Sprint
  Specific Exercises of Running Learning
  Technique of Sprint
  Teaching and Training of Sprint
  Rules for Sprint Competition
3. Middle and Long Distance Running
  Introduction and Development of the Event
  Technique of Middle and Long Distance Running
  Tactics of Middle and Long Distance Running
  Teaching and Training of the Event
  Technique of Cross-country Running
  Rules for Long Distance Run Competition
4. Relay
  4x100 Meter Relay Technique
  4x400 Meter Relay Technique
  Teaching and Training of Relay
5. Hurdling
  Introduction and Development of Hurdles
  Technique of Hurdling
  Teaching for the Curved Track Hurdling
  Teaching and Training of Hurdling
  Rules for Hurdling Competition
6. High Jump
  Introduction and Development of High Jump
  Technique of Fosbury Style High Jump
  Technique of Straddle Style High Jump
  Rules for High Jump Competition
7. Long Jump
  Introduction and Development of Long Jump
  Technique of Long Jump
  Teaching and Training of Long Jump
  Rules for Long Jump Competition
8. Shot Put
  Introduction and Development of shot Put
  O’Brien Style Shot Put Technique
  Teaching and Training of Shot Put
  Introduction of Rotating Style Shot Put
  Rules for Shot Put Competition
9. Javelin Throw
  Introduction and Development of Javelin Throw
  Technique of Javelin Throw
  Teaching and Training of Javelin Throw
  Rules for Javelin Throw Competition
10. Triple Jump, Pole Vault and Discus Throw
  Introduction and Development of the Events
  Teaching and Training of the Events
  Rules for the Above Events Competition


  Examination of the course is an important part in the teaching, and also an effective method to evaluate the teaching. In order to make students review and consolidate athletics basic theories, basic techniques and basic skills, and to improve their abilities of analyzing or solving problems and the teaching quality of the course, the examination of the athletics will include the following three parts: Theories, Evaluation of Technique and Test of performance with the details of contents and basic requirements.

  Theoretical Exams: The examinations will be conducted by the end of last term. The contents of the examination will include the theories, techniques of the teaching course and teaching and training methods of the events.

  Evaluation of practical techniques includes Sprint, Hurdle, Fosbury High Jump, Long Jump, Shot Put and Javelin Throw.
  1. Sprint: Technique of 60 meter dash with the staggered start
  2. Hurdle: Three hurdle clearance after start (hurdle height 91.4 cm for men, 76.2 cm for women, distances between hurdles 8.9 meters for men, 7.5meters for women)
  3. Fosbury Style High Jump: Evaluation Height 1.35 meters for men and 1.2 meters for women
  4. Long Jump: Above 8 steps whole approach long jump
  5. Shot Put: backward shift style shot put, shot weight 5 kg for men and 4 kg for women
  6. Javelin Throw: Whole approach javelin throwing, javelin weight 600g for men and women


  EVENTS               CLASS HOURS
  JUDGING METHOD             2
  WALK, LONG D RUNNING          8
  SPRINT, RELAY             16
  HURDL                 16
  HIGH JUMP               16
  LONG JUMP               16
  SHOT PU                16
  JAVELIN THROW             16
  TRIPLE JUMP               4
  POLE VAULT               4
  DISCUS THROW              4
  EXAMINATION               4
  TOTAL                 136


  1. Yi hou-gao, etc. <<English for Coach>>, People Sport Press.1994
  2.Shen Nan and Ma ying-kang <<The Techniques of Athletics English-Chinese Bilingual Textbook>>, Beijing Sport University Press. 2003
  3. Gerry A, Carr Fundamentals of Track and Field, Gerry A, Carr---Leisure Press. Champaign, Illinois
  4. William J. Bowerman High-performance Training for Track and Field, William J. Bowerman---Leisure Press, Champaign, Illinois
  5..The Athletics Congress’s TRACK AND FIELD COACHING MANUAL 1989.
  6.Wkllirm J Bowerman & Willirm H. Freeman High-Performance Training For Track and Field.
  7.Gerry A. Carr Fundamentals Of Track and Field.1990.
  8. 张贵敏等 全国体育学院通用教材 田径运动中级教程 人民体育出版社 1999


  Track and Field             田径运动 (Athletics;英)
  Track and Field Events          田径项目
  Track events               径赛项目
  One hundred metres            100米
  Two hundred metres            200米
  Four hundred metres           400米
  Eight hundred metres           800米
  Fifteen hundred metres          1500米
  Five thousand metres           5000米
  Ten thousand metres           10000米
  Three thousand metres steeplechase    3000米障碍(跑)
  Hundred and ten metres hurdles      110米栏
  Four hundred metres hurdles       400米栏
  Four by one hundred metres relay     4×100米接力
  Four by four hundred metres relay    4×400米接力
  Marathon(fouty-two point one nine five kilometres) 马拉松(42.195米)
  Road event                场外项目(公路项目)
  Twenty kilometre road walk        20公里竞走
  Fifty kilometre road walk        50公里竞走
  Field events               田赛项目
  Jumping/jump event            跳跃项目
  High jump                跳高
  Long jump                跳远
  Triple jump               三级跳远
  Pole vault                撑竿跳高
  Throwing/throw event           投掷项目
  Shot put                 推铅球
  Discus throw               掷铁饼
  Juvelin throw              掷标枪
  hammer throw               掷链球
  Multi- event               全能项目
  Heptathlon                七项全能运动
  Decathlon                十项全能运动
  Athlete                 运动员
  Sprinter                 短跑运动员
  Middle distance runner          中跑运动员
  Long distance runner           长跑运动员
  Hurdler                 跨栏跑运动员
  Relay runner               接力跑运动员
  Marathon runner             马拉松运动员
  Walker                  竞走运动员
  Pole vaulter               撑竿跳高运动员
  Combined competitions          全能项目比赛
  Decathlete                十项全能运动员
  Basic athletic skill           田径基本技术
  Form work                技术练习
  Drive leg                蹬地腿
  Lead leg                 摆动腿
  Overstride                步子过大
  Steps-ups                单足踏步练习
  Concentric exercise           动力性练习
  Sequence of movement           动作顺序
  Sprint training             短跑训练
  Repeat runs               反复跑
  Auxiliary exercise            辅助练习
  Toe press                负重提踵练习
  High pressure training          高强度训练
  Action series              技术动作连续图
  Buildup                 加速跑冲刺跑练习
  Interval training            间隙跑
  Track                  径赛场地
  Centrifugal force            离心力
  Lead arm                 领先臂
  Lead foot                领先脚
  Round                  轮次(径赛)
  Running velocity             跑速
  Running direction            跑向
  Running style              跑姿
  Forward momentum             前冲力
  Round                   赛次(田赛)
  Racing season              赛季
  Running/track shoes           跑鞋
  Spike                  钉(跑鞋)
  Warmup                  热身运动
  Stretching exercise           伸展活动
  Speed                  速度
  Strength                 力量
  Endurance                耐力
  Flexbility                柔韧性
  Speed endurance             速度耐力
  Track-and-field players’ clothes    田径服装
  Track season               田径季节
  Track star                田径明星
  Track and field meet           田径赛
  Athletic training            田径训练
  Athletic apparatus            田径运动器械
  Field                  田赛场地
  Jumping shoes              跳鞋
  Form jumping               跳高姿势练习
  Leg action                腿部动作
  Leg power                腿部力量
  Tension exercise             张力练习
  Training burden             训练量
  Training intensity            训练强度
  Running on spot             原地跑
  Starting gun               发令枪
  Fire                   开枪
  Starting blocks              起跑器
  Respond                  反应
  Full speed                 全速
  Finish                   结束、终点
  Photo finish                终点摄影(照片)
  Baton                   接力棒
  Run-up                   助跑
  Take-off point               起跳点
  Take-off board               起跳板
  Overstepping                踏(过)线犯规
  Horizontal                 水平的
  vertical                  垂直的
  sand pit                  沙坑
  rotate                   旋转
  throwing circle              投掷圈
  Running vest                运动背心
  Racing number               胸前号码
  Host city                 举办城市
  Spectator                 观众
  Asian Games                亚运会
  Olympic Games               奥运会
  Athletics World Cup            田径世界杯
  World Athletics Championships       世界田径锦标赛
  International Amateur Athletic Federation 国际业余田径联合会

          Questions and Answers

1. What are the most important competitions in track and field?
  The most important international competition is the Olympic Games which take place every four years.
  Another important event is the World athletics Championships.
  In Asia the most important event is the Asian Games.
  At national level, the National Track and Field Championships and the National Youth Championships are the most important.
2. What is the name of the world governing body in track and field?
  The world governing body is the IAAF(I, DoubleA, F) The International Amateur Athletic Federation.
3. What is the name of the national governing body in track and field?
  The national governing body is the NAF. NAF stands for National Athletic Federation.
4. What are the basic skills of an athlete?
  That question is difficult to answer in a few words.
  That’s a complicated issue. Perhaps I can give you a brief explanation, outlining
  The main points.
  For a sprinter, speed and acceleration are important.
  For a middle distance runner, a combination of strength, endurance and speed is required.
  For a long distance runner, stamina is most important.
5. What are the basic fitness requirements of an athlete?
  These include speed, endurance, strength, stamina, agility and flexibility.
6. How can the level of fitness be improved?
  The level of fitness can be improved in several ways:
  --by increasing the number of miles run every week,
  --by intensifying the training,
  --by using weight training,
  by improving the athlete’s diet.
7. How can an athlete reach peak fitness for a competition?
  It is the coach’s responsibility to bring his athletes to peak fitness by the careful structure of his training schedule.
8. What is the optimum starting age, for young athletes?
  That depends on the event.
9. At what age should young athletes start to train?
  In my country we begin to coach our young athletes at the age of eight.
10. Is track and field part of the school physical education programme?
  Yes ,from the age of eleven, youngsters take part in amateur sports activities on a regular basis.
11. In your country, at what level are amateur sports competitions held?
  They are held at club level rather than at college level as in the United States.
12. What kinds of training do you recommend for young athletes?
  Training should be gradual. The distances covered in training should be increased over several months.
13. What kind of training do you recommend for sprinters?
  I recommend practice at three quarters speed over twice the distance of the event. From time to time, the athlete should inject short bursts of maximum speed.
14. Do you recommend full speed trails over the actual distance of the race?
  No, this form of training exhausts the runner both physically and mentally.
15. What is the object of training?
  The object should be to increase speed and stamina and build up a high energy level.
16. How many hours a day do your middle distance runners train?
  They train at least two hours a day.
17. How many miles a week do your long distance athletes run?
  Our long distance runner cover a minimum of one hundred miles a week and a maximum of two hundred miles.
18. How do you improve the techniques of your athletes?
  We provide them with highly qualified coaches from this country and abroad.
  We also study the performance of first class athletes on film and videotape.
  19. Could you outline some of the most important features of sprinting?
  Firstly sprinting emphasizes stride length and stride frequency.
  Secondly sprinting emphasizes high knee lift.
  Thirdly sprinting emphasizes arm action.
  Lastly a sprinter must have a quick reaction time to the firing of the starting gun.
20. Do you consider a four hundred metre runner as a sprinter or as a middle distance runner?
  The event requires both speed and endurance. I personally consider him as a sprinter. Other people consider him as a middle distance runner.
21. How many days does the decathlon competition last?
  The decathlon usually lasts two days-----five events on the first day and five events on the second day.
22. Could you describe the technique of the walker to me?
  Walking is also called heel and toe walking. The heel of the form foot hits the ground just before the toe of the back foot leaves the ground. So one foot is in contact with the ground at all times.
23. Who is the lead-off man in your relay team?
  Our best starter will run the first leg of the relay.
24. Who will run the anchor leg of your relay team?
  Our best sprinter will run the anchor leg.
25. What is the most important feature of the relay training?
  Baton changing practice is the most important feature.
26. What is the most critical part of the long jump?
  The most critical part is the run-up.
27. How does the jumper measure his approach run?
  He places markers on the runway which act as check points.
28. What are vaulting poles made of ?
  They are made of fiberglass and are extremely flexible.
29. What are the most important qualities of a pole vaulter?
  He must have speed, power and agility.
30. What techniques are used in the high jump?
  Athletes used to use the straddle jump, the scissors jump and the western roll, Now most top jumpers use the Fosbury Flop.
31. What elements constitute the triple jump?
  The triple jump consist of three elements: The hop, the step and the jump.
32. What are the key qualities of the throwing event?
  The key qualities are as follows:
  Firstly, the thrower must have good coordination. Secondly ,good footwork is of the utmost importance. Thirdly, at the moment of delivery, the back should be straight and the head erect. Fourthly the thrower must have balance, especially during the rotation of his body. He must deliver the missile and at the same time stay inside the throwing circle.
33. What does the act of throwing consist of ?
  The act of throwing consists of giving the maximum speed to the missile at the moment when it leaves the hand. The involves acceleration from a resting position.
34. What is the diameter of the throwing ring in the discus event?
  The diameter of the throwing ring is 2.5 metres.
35. How much does the discus weigh?
  The discus weighs two kilograms for men and one kilogram for women.
36. What is the most important element in throwing the javelin?
  The arm action is the most important element.
37. How is it possible to improve the physique and bulk of a shot putter?
  Through weight training and improved diet.
38. what is the optimum angle of release of the hammer?
  The optimum angle of release is about forty four degrees.
39. What training should coaches be given?
  They should be given training in specific sport knowledge, coaching theory, and practical experience.
40. What should coaching theory include?
  It should include sport psychology, physiology, anatomy, biomechanics, biochemistry, theory of exercise, and so on.
41. What should practical experience include?
  It should include training an athlete and organizing an athlete’s program.
42.Should China invite foreign coaches to improve the skill level of its sportsman?中国应当聘请  外国教练来提高自己运动员的技术水平吗?
  This is not an easy question to answer. There are advantages and disadvantages.
43.What are the advantages?
  A foreign coach has special knowledge and expertise.
  He can improve the training program.
  He can set a good example for Chinese coaches.
44.What are the disadvantages?
  Inviting a foreign coach is very expensive.
  Foreign coaches don’t speak Chinese, so communication is difficult.
  They only stay in China for a short time.
45.So what is you opinion?
  Maybe foreign coaches achieve temporary improvements but it would be better to spend the money on developing our own national coaching program.
46.Why is it necessary to have top class coaches?
  Because top class coaches produce world class athletes.
47.Can an athlete reach his full potential without a top class coach?
  No ,he can’t. A top class coach has the experience, knowledge and techniques that an athlete needs.
48.Should China have a development program for coaches?
  Yes, there is a development program for athletes, so there should be a development program for coaches too.
49.What are some of the characteristics of a good coach?
  He should be good at establishing personal relationships with athletes and officials.
  He should have excellent teaching skills and a deep knowledge of his sport.
  He should have a good sense of humour.
  He should set a good example to his athletes.
50.Are personal relationships important for the coach?
  Yes, the coach should be able to get on well with other people.
51.With whom should he establish good relationships?
  He should establish good relationships with his athletes, with clubs and officials, and with other coaches.
52. What about his relationships with judges and officials?
  He should always respect the work of officials and accept their decisions. Any protest about a decision should be made by the team manager, not by the coach.

Track  Events

  Events on the track can be divided into several sections. On the flat, there are sprints, middle distance races and long distance races. There are also the four by one hundred metres relay and the four by four hundred metres relay. In addition, races are run over hurdles and barriers from one hundred and ten metres up to three thousand metres. Extreme distance races include the marathon over forty-two kilometres and the men’s fifty kilometre road walk.
  Most track events begin in lanes. From a crouching position in starting blocks, athletes respond to the firing of a starting gun. For sprint races up to four hundred metres, competitors stay in their lanes for the whole race. Over longer distances runners may break lanes. Results are decided by a photo finish. There are certain differences between men’s and women’s events. Women’s events are usually shorter and consist of fewer elements. For example, in multi-event competitions men take part in the decathlon which comprises ten events. Women participate in the heptathlon which is composed of seven events. The men’s sprint hurdle is over one hundred and ten metres. The women’s sprint hurdle is over one hurdle metres. The obstacles are smaller and closer together. This takes into account the physical differences between male and female athletes.
  Some events are held outside the stadium. For example, the men’s fifty kilometre walk and the marathon are mainly run on the streets of the host city. However, the final lap always takes place in the stadium in front of the crowd of spectators.
Most race are for individuals, but some are run in relay. Teams of four people pass a baton from hand to hand. This technique requires a high level of practice, split-second timing and good teamwork. It promotes collective responsibility and team spirit.
Track athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and stamima, as well as self-confidence, concentration and mental toughness. The basic athletic skills are common to all sports.

径 赛 项 目

  径赛项目可分为若干类.平跑项目有短跑,中距离跑和长距离跑, 还有4×100米接力和4×400米接力. 此外, 有跨栏和障碍赛跑,距离由110米栏到3000米障碍跑.超长距离径赛项目有马拉松, 距离为42公里以上, 还有男子50公里公路竞走.
  大多数径赛项目在跑道上起跑. 运动员采用蹲踞姿势, 利用起跑器, 听发令枪声作出反应起跑.短距离比赛, 包括400米, 在整个赛跑过程中运动员都按自己的道次跑. 长跑运动员可以抢道(切入内道).
成绩由终点摄影的照片确定. 男子与女子的(径赛)项目有一定区别. 一般来说, 女子跑的距离短一些, 项目少一些. 如全能比赛男子要参加10项, 女子则参加7项比赛.短距离跨栏,男子是110米, 而女子则100米. 栏的高度和栏间距也低些近些. 这主要是考虑男女运动员之间体力上的差别.
有的项目在体育场外进行. 如男子50公里竞走和马拉松,主要在举办城市的大街上进行.但最后一圈都在运动场, 在广大观众面前进行.
  大多数跑的比赛(races)是个人项目, 但是接力跑例外. 由四人组成一队用手传递接力棒,这一技术要求有高水平训练, 时间必须把握准确并且配合默契.接力比赛能提高集体主义责任感和团队精神.

Field  Events

  Events in the field can be divided into two sections: jumping and throwing. Jumping events include the high jump, long jump, triple jump and pole vault. Throwing events comprise the javelin, discus, hammer and shotput.
  Whereas track races are measured by time, accurate to one hundreth of a second, field events are measured by distance or height in metres. Every athlete is allowed three attempts to achieve a qualifying distance or height. If he is successful, he progresses to the next round.
Except the javelin, throwing events take place inside a throwing circle. There is no run-up. Instead, the athlete rotates his body across the circle and releases his missile using a combination of explosive strength and speed.
  Jumping events require an approach run in order to generate speed. The athlete must hit the take-off point on the proper foot, or hit the take-off board without overstepping the line. Vaulters also use a run-up to convert horizontal speed into vertical lift. The pole is made of fiberglass which is extremely flexible. Jumpers and pole vaulters land in a pit filled with sand or foam rubber.
  Field events require highly technical specialized skills. The decathlon and heptathlon include both track and field events and are suitable for the all-round athlete. Results are measured by the combined total number of points for all events.
Field athletes require a combination of speed, strength, endurance, balance, good footwork and coordination.

田 赛 项 目

  田赛项目可分为两类, 跳跃和投掷. 跳跃项目包括跳高,跳远,三级跳远和撑竿跳高. 投掷项目包括标枪,铁饼,链球和铅球.
  径赛项目由时间测定(成绩), 精确至百分之一秒, 而田赛项目则由距离或高度, 以米和厘米测定. 每位运动员允许度跳(投)三次, 以成绩确定是否有资格参加下一轮比赛.
除标枪外, 投掷项目都在投掷圈内进行, 不用助跑. 运动员靠在限制圈内的身体旋转, 运用爆发力和速度把器械(投掷物)抛出.
  跳跃项目需要助跑, 以产生速度, 运动员必须用起跳脚踏上起跳点或起跳板, 而不能超越起跳线. 撑竿跳高运动员也使用助跑, 把水平速度转化为纵向力量. 撑竿是由纤维玻璃钢制造, 具有良好的柔韧性, 跳跃项目的运动员和撑竿跳运动员在由沙子或泡沫橡胶作成的坑(垫)上着地.
  田赛项目要求有高水平的专项技术和技巧. 十项和七项运动都含有径赛和田赛两类项目. 这对全能项目运动员来说是适宜的.(全能项目)成绩是由参赛各项成绩所得分数的总和确定.